Russian and Turkish smart power in BIH: A challenge to EU?

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Author: Kenan Kadić


This research has the aim to unravel the nature of the impact of Russian and Turkish soft power influence in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as to provide an understanding of how this relates to Bosnia’s overall perception of the European Union per se and its enlargement project. The article will start by outlining the foreign policy tool and concept of „soft power“, which in combination with traditional hard power potentials enables states to develop the new, „smart power“ strategy and then argue that EU enlargement fatigue coupled with reduced US influence has contributed to the frequence and intensity of Russian and Turkish smart power projection as well as provide an explanation for how this relates to the overall perception of the EU in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Building upon these findings, policymakers and civil society actors will be able to upgrade their current knowledge and see where they can capitalize from these power projections.


  • soft power,
  • hard power,
  • smart power,
  • Russia,
  • Turkey,
  • EU enlargement,
  • US,
  • foreign policy,
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina

VPI BH RESEARCH INTERNSHIP paper, Foreign Policy Initiative BH, 2021.

Mentor: Lejla Ramić-Mesihović, PhD

English version PDF* Russian and Turkish smart power in BIH: A challenge to EU?

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